Linux Network Internals

skb = socket buffer In C, implemented as struct sk_buff. It represents a packet in linux.   Socket Buffer Design SKB consists of three primary data. Headers(L2 – L4 layers), linear data, non-linear data. It has layer specific fields. It is manipulated by each layer for the network functionality – for example, IP layer adds […] Read more»


Linux Device Drivers 1 – Introduction

Download linux kernel from www.kernel.org 1. wget https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v4.x/linux-4.1.3.tar.gz 2. tar -xzvf linux-4.1.3.tar.gz 3. patch -p1 patch-4.1.3 After downloading the linux kernel from https://www.kernel.org/ , it contains the following file structure. arch. This directory contains architecture-specific files. You will see separate subdirectories under arch/ for processors such as ARM, Motorola 68K, s390, MIPS, Alpha, SPARC, and IA64. block. This primarily contains […] Read more»


I read a lot, and it would be very cliché if I use the term Bookworm which we generally use for the ones who reads a lot. Though I read a lot but I am very selective about what I read and how I read. But no doubt I m a book Lover and it […] Read more»


Leg Muscles Anatomy

  QUADS: 1. RECTUS FEMORIS – comes from top of the hip and crosses the knee 2. VASTUS LATERALIS – top of femur and crosses the knee 3. VASTUS MEDIALIS – top of thigh and also attaches the knee called tear drop muscles 4. VASTUS INTERMEDIUS – runs deep down the rectus femoris   HAMSTRING: […] Read more»

text mining

Text Mining and Analytics – Part 1

Text mining is almost equivalent to Text analytics. Text mining is process to convert text into high quality information. 1. Mining knowledge about language 2. Mining content of text data 3. Mining knowledge about the observer 4. Infer other real-world variables (predictive analytics) Read more»

What is multimedia?

Multimedia is an integration of continuous media(audio, video) and discrete media(text, graphics, images) through which digital information is conveyed to users in an appropriate ways. Multimedia System Characteristics: 1. Information must be represented digitally. 2. The interface to the final user may permit interactivity. 3. All multimedia components are integrated. 4. Multimedia systems must be […] Read more»


My Best Song of the Week

1. See  you again – Wiz Khalifa   2. Thinking out loud – Ed Sheeran 3.  Girl on Fire – Alicia Keys 4. Pills N Potions – Nicki Minaj   6. Bad Blood – Taylor Swift 7. Love me like you do – Ellie Goulding   8. You belong with me – Taylor Swift 9. […] Read more»