An introduction to Artificial Intelligence
In my process of learning Artificial Intelligence, I found everyday tasks, formal tasks and expert tasks are intelligent behavior. Everyday tasks are like recognize a friend, translating one language to another. Formal tasks are like playing chess, proving a logic theorem and Expert tasks is like engineering design, medical design, financial analysis.
Then, what is intelligence ? Intelligence is:
1. Ability to reason
2. Ability to understand
3. Ability to create
But, it is not possible to create a machine that can have these abilities.
So, AI is the part of computer science concerned with designing intelligence computer systems, that is, systems that exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence in human behavior. It is also the study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better.
AI actually looks like Turing Test where interrogator can communicate two with sources: one is human and the other is a machine. He must decide which is which. If he is wrong half the time, then the machine is intelligent.
Today, AI is used to diagnose lymph-node diseases, monitor space shuttle missions, automatic vehicle control, large scale scheduling, detection of money laundering, classify astronomical objects, automatic design and configuration systems, first commercial speech understanding systems, beat world’s best players in chess, checkers, and backgammon.
An examples of AI is Eliza:
ELIZA, which is a program that simulated a psychotherapist interacting with a patient and successfully passed the Turing Test. Coded at MIT during 1964-1966 by Joel Weizenbaum,
– First script was doctor and the script was a simple collection of syntactic patterns not unlike regular expressions. Each pattern had an associated reply which might include bits of the input( ( after simple transformations(my -> your)). Weizenbaum was shocked at reactions because psychiatrists thought it had potential and people unequivocally anthropomorphised.
Some of the topics that AI is an umbrella are:
1. Machine Learning
2. Natural Language Processing
4. Image Processing
5. Expert Systems
6. Lisp & Prolog
9. Automatic Programming
A real AI would indeed be an autonomous intelligent agent. Hence, it is out of our control. When our interests and AI’s interests conflict, guess who loses. Therefore, AI research is unethical.
Asimov’s inserts ethics into AI in robots. They are,
1. A robot may not injure a human being, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings.
3. A robot must protect its own existence.