how to develop ORM(object relational mapping) in PHP using OOP

Today, i am going to teach you, how to develop object relational mapping database application in PHP using object oriented programming methodology. I love to code in object oriented method to reduce redundancy, encapsulation and many more. Let’s begin….   1. First create the database called ‘ORM‘ using phpmyadmin and create the ‘person‘ table   […] Read more»


How to install neo4j

Neo4j is an open-source, NoSQL graph database implemented mainly in Java and Scala. Its development started in 2003 and it has been sponsored by Neo Technology, Inc. since 2011. The source code and issue tracking is available on, with an active community supporting users on Stack Overflow and the Neo4j Google Group. Neo4j is used by hundreds of […] Read more»

Query Processing

high level user query —–> query processor ——-> low level data manipulation commands Query processing: A 3-step process that transforms a high-level query (of relational calculus/SQL) into an equivalent and more efficient lower-level query (of relational algebra). 1. Parsing and translation – Check syntax and verify relations. – Translate the query into an equivalent relational algebra expression. 2. Optimization […] Read more»

Semantic Data Control

Semantic data control typically includes view management, security control, and semantic integrity control. views, security constraints, and semantic integrity constraints can be defined as rules that the system automatically enforces. Views enable full logical data independence. All views can be queried as base relations, but not all view can be updated as such – Updates through […] Read more»

Distributed Database Design

Design problem • Design strategies(top-down, bottom-up) • Fragmentation (horizontal and vertical) • Allocation and replication of fragments, optimality, heuristics   Top-down approach – Designing systems from scratch – Homogeneous systems Bottom-up approach – The databases already exist at a number of sites – The databases should be connected to solve common tasks   Distribution design […] Read more»

What is Distributed Database System

A distributed database is a collection of databases which are distributed over different computers of a computer network. Advantages: Local Autonomy: permits setting and enforcing local policies regarding the use of local data (suitable for organization that are inherently decentralized). Improved Performance: The regularly used data is proximate to the users and given the parallelism […] Read more»

Distributed Database Architecture

Architecture: The architecture of a system defines its structure: – the components of the system are identified; – the function of each component is specified; – the interrelationships and interactions among the components are defined.   Motivation for standardization of DDBMS architecture: a. Homogeneous DDBMS b. Heterogeneous DDBMS   Reference Model: A conceptual framework whose […] Read more»


Mariadb Galera Cluster setting up

Mariadb is drop in replacement for MySQL which was developed just after MySQL acquired by Oracle. Both Maria and My are named after daughter of its database developer. Clustering in Mariadb is very easy and straightforward. Currently, there are two releases of Mariadb, 5.5 which is stable version and 10.0 is development version. I installed the […] Read more»